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Ukraine has an enormous agricultural potential to give a great number of raw material to the food and processing industry. The investments to these branches are the most attractive because one can hold over all the problems till tomorrow but one has to think about food every day.

In a ration of a human being cereals take 8 – 13% of public grains consumption. It is characteristic for Ukraine that here cereal production of wide range of grain crops ( more than 10 names) is consumed. Rice, millet, buckwheat are sometimes called strictly cereal crops as correspondent grain crops are mostly used for cereals production. Besides groats and cereal production is made from barley, wheat, peas, oat and corn grain. In some cases such grain crops as sorghum, turkestan millet, lentil and others are processed into cereals, there is a wide choice of cereals products, it includes whole-kernel and split cereals, flakes etc. This plenty of groats products is historically substantiated. Ukraine is one of the rare countries where all sorts of grain crops are grown and cultivated.

Peas can be called one of the main and the most ancient leguminuous crops in Ukraine. This is substantiated by the fact that archeologists discovered peas seeds of the third millenium B.C. period in Chernovitskaya and Ivano-Frankovskaya regions and near Severo-Donetsk in the fifth century B.C. On the territory of Kiev Rus peas are known from anscient times, and when they say: «It was at Tsar Pea times» — they mean the events of deep antiquity. Our peas — the same, from which we cook a pea-soup, - appear to be known yet then, when neither potatoes nor carrots nor even cabbage were known. As the result of excavations on the territory of modern Switzerland peas were found in settlements, related to the Stone age. “Peas” is “cicero” in Latin. From here, by the way, comes the last name of the famous Roman speaker Cicero, which would sound as “Peas” in Russian. According to a legend, one of his ancestors had a wart in a form of a pea on a nose, for what he was nicknamed Cicero. The nickname stayed for the whole family.

Today peas are grown in all countries of the world and it occupies the fourth place (about 11 million ha) on sowing areas after soybeans, kidney beans and chickpeas. Peas are grown for the production of food products, the plant is processed in a flour, groats, flakes and can food. Two kinds of cereals are produced from peas: peas polished whole and peas polished split sort 1 and 2.

The main useful property of peas is high contents of albumen that contents valuable and not replaceable amino acids (lysine, tryptophan, cysteine, methionine). This product always enters a food allowance of vegans and vegetarians, those who holds a post, and also needs the strengthened proteinaceous food (athletes, people of hard professions). Besides a proteinaceous component peas also contain starch, natural sugar, fats (saturated fatty acids), cellulose. The vitamin row presented in peas, contains beta carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamins of group B, E, H, RR. The set of mineral salts is extraordinary wide and various. By right it is possible to call peas the champion according to the contents of micro and macrocells, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, strontium, tin, sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, zinc, manganese, iron, aluminum, molybdenum pine forest, fluorine, vanadium, titan, nickel, silicon, strontium, chrome are contained in its structure. Such rich set of valuable substances also explains advantage of peas for human health. Young green peas possess antiseptic properties, are capable to bring worms out of a digestive tract, positively influence work of cardiovascular and blood systems, help to clean puffiness. The high content of organic acids (lemon and oxalic) allows peas to bring sand that is excellent prevention of an urolithic illness out of kidneys. Poultices from a pea flour are applied for dispersion of firm inflammatory infiltrates, abscesses, furuncles. Modern researches found hormone-like connections in peas oil.


Millet

Millet differs high nutritiousness, good tastes and is one of widespread food. In traditional medicine millet is appreciated as the product giving strength, "strengthening a body".

Millet is rich for protein, fats, starch, vitamins (B1, B2 PP, pro-vitamin A), mineral substances (magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and iron).

Dishes from millet possess high qualities, quickly boil soft and join in balanced and medical foods at liver diseases, atherosclerosis, obesity.

Millet cereal is one of the means capable in the best way to remove antibiotics out of the organism.

Millet cereal improves work of bodies of blood circulation, nervous system and a liver.

Buckwheat groats belong to the most consumable and favourite types of groats. Buckwheat itself came to us from Himalayas, where the most kinds of wilding and cultivated plants can be found. Buckwheat is valuable for its formula. It contains 12-15,4% of albumens, 58-60% of starch, 12,5-15,0% of celluloses, 2,5-0,7% of sugar, 2,3-2,5% of mineral matters (connections of iron, calcium, phosphorus), vitamins B1, B2, Rutinums. On one of major irreplaceable amino acids - lysine - buckwheat excels millet, wheat, rye, rice, and approaches soya beans. On the contents of threonine buckwheat excels wheat and rye. On the contents of valine, leucine and phenylalanine it can be equated to milk and beef, on the contents of tryptophane it does not yield to the products of animal origin.

Grit is enriched with cellulose which connects cancerogenic substances and brings them out of an organism.

Buckwheat dishes recommend at atherosclerosis, a hypertension, at hypostases of various origin. Buckwheat cereal promotes removal from an organism of excess cholesterol (so fans of buckwheat will not face a senile sclerosis and heart troubles) and brings slags and ions of heavy metals out of an organism. Buckwheat cereal is extremely useful at various diseases of vessels, rheumatic diseases and arthritises. It improves blood circulation, strengthens immune system.

Beside the whole cereals there are also “cracked” or split cereals. These are cracked barley, wheat and corn. Those cereals are called numbered which means they are divided into several numbers (or fractions) according to the size of the cracked cereals.

 

Pearl-barley, fine-ground barley

Fine-ground barley – pearl barley is rich in vitamin groups A, E, groups B, mineral substances, micro and macrocells (potassium, phosphorus, iron).

It is recommended to use in the form of porridges, garnishes, meatballs including it in diets. Fine-ground barley – pearl barley is used in preventive foods for preparation of mucous broths at diseases of digestive organs.

Well cooked pearl-barley porridge is one of prophylactics of an anemia, obesity. It is rich with amino acids which have antiviral effect. In pearl barley there is a lysine which participates in production of collagen, and collagen that slows down emergence of wrinkles, keeps skin elastic and smooth.

 

Wheat groats

High-quality wheat is used for production of groats. Wheat groats is a unique power source. The Product is for those who leads an active life. Natural color, uniformity of grains provide its high consumer properties, is easily acquired by an organism.

Wheat groats contains vegetable proteins, carbohydrates, a large amount of cellulose, and also mineral substances and vitamins. Grit is of great importance in baby and dietary food.

Wheat porridge distinguishes the high contents of choline which is regulating a fatty exchange.

Grain of wheat has pleasant from yellow (from summer) to grayish (from winter) color. Also it is characterized by an identical consistence of practically all particles.

Thus, wheat is incredibly useful grain which can be considered dietary (and even as the nursery) as it is very quickly acquired, but it is thus very nutritious (at the expense of a large amount of protein).

Wheat groats is used for preparation of wheat porridge, baked puddings, puddings, meatballs, soups.

 

Defatted corn grain

Corn grain is made as a result of processing of grains of corn.

Corn grain is a valuable nutritious product. Corn grain is characterized by the big content of vitamins — groups B, A, E, PP, and microcells — iron, silicon. It contains to 75% of carbohydrates, carotene therefore it is especially recommended to elderly people and those who leads an inactive life. Porridge from corn is low-calorie, capable to bring fat and pesticides out of an organism.

Corn grain is rich in starch, iron contains RR vitamin. Porridges in well cooked way are easily acquired and promote intestines improvement.

Grain corn is capable to slow down fermentation and rotting processes in intestines that allows to include it in a food diet periodically.

Production shops make five-number polished corn grain, corn grain for flakes and small - for production of crackling sticks, a corn flour, corn starch, and corn oil from corn germs allocated by production of grain, flour and starch.

Corn grain is used for preparation of corn porridge, a hominy, soups, baked puddings, stuffings for pies.

 

Semolina

Semolina is developed from the central part of wheat grain. In semolina there isn't enough cellulose, however it is rich with vegetable protein and starch and possesses the high caloric content and nutritional value, is characterized by high comprehensibility (comprehensibility of semolina makes nearly 100 percent) At the same time the content of vitamins and mineral substances in this grain is much lower, than in others. It is recommended for patients with sharp chronic diseases of a stomach, a small intestine, liver and biliary ways. Semolina dishes are good for patients who have transferred surgeries on abdominal organs. Semolina finds broad application as in baby food and daily food of adults, quickly prepares therefore keeps all useful substances in the course of preparation.

 

Semolina is used not only for preparation of semolina porridge. It is widely used in cookery. Semolina is added for preparation of soups, salads. Baked puddings, puddings, dumplings, cakes and many other dishes of ethnic cuisine are made with it.